Areas of Research:
- Blockchain based Peer-to-peer energy sharing and trading platform: From being central generation to decentralized power generation, the energy systems are undergoing a rapid transition nationally and internationally. With the proliferation of rooftop solar system, electric vehicles and energy storage, grid based electricity is slowly becoming a backup supply. Furthermore, decentralized approach has opened up numerous opportunities of trading and transfer of electricity between sources of distributed generation, load points and grid companies. The proposed segregation of wire and supply of electricity will change the way electricity sector functions bringing in much needed competition and choice for buyers. However, peer to peer trading will also lead to challenge of handling a very large volume of trades every minute, which can be addressed using blockchain technology, an open and decentralized ledger that allows users to get into instant contracts, track fulfilment and process settlements instantly.
- Water-energy-agriculture-climate change nexus: Water is projected to become a scare resource in medium- to long-terms, if not managed well. Water stresses are already being experienced by Indian rural as well as expanding urban areas. We are measuring irrigation pumping efficiency and also including water as a resource in bottom-up energy-economy-environment models. Smart grids and grid responsive buildings: Smart grids are required for a third industrial revolution. For instance, grid-responsive and connected building application is key to link energy efficiency and daily operations, such as demand response (DR), to achieve electricity reliability and operational efficiency
- Green Infrastructure, Energy Policy and Energy Modelling: Green infrastructure and energy systems, regional and sectoral policies, global and national policies, technology policies and socio-economic policy analysis for economy-energy- environment. We have also introduced new courses such as "Managing Energy Businesses" and "Energy markets and Agribusinesses" at IIMA for management students since last year. I also have intensive experience with internationally used models like MARKAL and AIM family (Enduse, Local, Country, Trend, Air). I have also worked closely with the International Energy Agency for their World Energy Outlook 2006.
- Green products and services: I created and co-founded one of the first Eco-Label in India for product and services THE GREEN SIGNAL in June 2011 that certified environmental footprints of products and services during their use phase. (http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/industry/services/education/iim-ahmedabad-comes-up-with-indias-first-eco-label/articleshow/8780057.cms).
- Green corporates: I conceptualized and co-founded another green label for Indian corporates with Bombay Stock Exchange termed as GREENEX in February 2012 (https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/bse-launches-indias-first-carbon-efficient-live-index-called-greenex/articleshow/12038414.cms). The index captured the energy and greenhouse gas intensities of BSE-100 companies. This index consistently out-performed BSE Sensex.
- Uncertainty assessment and risk management for corporates due to climate change: Corporates and businesses are increasingly becoming sensitive to the additional risks from changing climate. The risks could be myriad such as physical threats to infrastructure, to supply chains, to demand centers, energy prices, and carbon pricing. We help to quantify additional risks faced and to design risk management strategies including appropriate financing and insurance products, and also to leverage existing adaptation funding mechanisms.
- Carbon Finance: This is a fast emerging area internationally and is drawing considerable interests from business, government and common public alike. We are teaching new courses such as "Carbon Finance" and "Agribusiness and Carbon Finance" at IIMA for management students since last 4 years. These cover carbon market concepts, financial instruments for carbon mitigation, financing carbon mitigation projects and technologies, and emerging carbon finance opportunities. These courses have become quite popular since their initial offerings. I also guide post-graduate students for independent business and research projects on carbon markets and finance issues.
- Adaptation Policy for Climate Change Impacts: Climate change impacts and vulnerability assessment, practice and policy inter-linkages for adaptation - especially for long-life assets, development and adaptation to climate change.
- Climate Change Mitigation Policy: GHG emission mitigation potential assessment, construction and analysis of alternative mitigation scenarios, non-CO2 gas emission projections and mitigation analysis.
- Development, Energy and Climate Change: Energy and income generation relationships, energy transitions and development, Millennium development goals, energy and climate change, linkages between alternate development pathways and GHG emissions, equity aspects of climate change mitigation on human health (through mitigating local air pollution).
- Solar agriculture pumps: India has over 25 million agriculture pumpsets, and the power supply is not reliable at many locations. This adversely impacts optimum irrigation to various crops while creating uncertainty and increased cost (diesel pumps) for the farmers. Electricity subsidy is also a huge burden on State exchequer. Solar systems could provide solution.
- Emission Inventory Assessment: Developed sub-regional and large point source level energy consumption, GHG and local pollutant emissions inventory for India. It is designed as an instrument for regional and sectoral business and policy analysis of Indian emissions. Non-CO2 GHG emission assessment, future projections and mitigation analysis are my core research interests. Corporate accounting of greenhouse gas emissions and strategies to mitigate these are integral aspects of my research interests.
- Demand Side Management: End-use electricity efficiency improvements offer an inexpensive way to reduce power shortages. The economic potential for cost-effective end-use energy efficiency improvements could be large enough to eliminate electricity shortages. The saved electricity could be provided as additional power to high-end consumers or to fulfill social policy agenda such as providing 1 kWh-electricity per day to every rural household. Provision of electricity is an enabling condition for enhancing productivity and income generation of poor households.
- New and Renewable Energy Technology Policy: Renewable energy and climate change, global status and outlook on renewable energy, new technologies such as CO2 capture and storage, IGCC and their potential and implications for energy systems, multiple GHG sink-source modeling in a GIS-environment for India, regional and sectoral emission source clustering.
International & National Research Projects:
• Development of a prosumer driven integrated SMART grid (2018-2021)
Funded by DST, in collaboration with Florida International University (FIU), Miami, USA, IIT Gandhinagar, MS Ramaiah Institute of Technology, BSES Yamuna Power Limited, Renault NISSAN and AMPLUS Solar, the vision of the project is to develop and demonstrate a block chain based peer to peer energy sharing and trading platform that enables consumers to manage their home or industrial energy needs, and take control of their energy sourcing, while achieving higher energy security, enhancing renewable energy share and increasing commercial viability of enhanced energy efficiency measures.
• International Climate Initiative (2018-2021)
The project funded by International Climate Initiative (IKI) of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) aims to supports the implementation of the Paris Agreement and SDGs, at national level in major emerging countries and internationally e.g. under the UNFCCC. It will primarily conduct detailed analysis of the implications of 2/1.5C for national development pathways, priority actions and cooperative initiatives, and support the in-country development of Long Term Low GHG Emission Development Strategies that are coherent, transparent, credible and in line with domestic development goals.
• Linking Climate and Development Policies – Levering International Networks and Knowledge Sharing (CD-LINKS) (2015-2019)
EU funded international collaborative project aims to improve the scientific understanding of the linkages between climate change and multiple sustainable development objectives, to broaden the evidence base in the area of policy effectiveness by exploring past and current policy experiences, to develop globally consistent, national low-carbon development pathways, to establish a research network to leverage knowledge sharing among institutions from Europe and several Non-European G20 countries.
• Risk and uncertainty assessment for Critical Railway Infrastructure due to impacts of Climate change (2018- 2019)
Joint research project conducted by IIM Ahmedabad and IIT Gandhinagar focuses on assessing climate change related risks and impacts faced by fixed track infrastructures on the critical routes of the Indian railways network covering bridges, culverts and tunnels due to extreme precipitation and temperature events in the medium- to long-term future timescales under various climate change scenarios for each railway zone.
• Health impacts of Heat extremes (2017-2020)
To investigate climactic exposure on cardiovascular health outcomes in urban India, develop method and modeling tool for assessing current and future population exposure and public health risks related to extreme heat, Develop thresholds for heat-mortality relationships that can provide inputs for heat-warning systems.
• Estimating Energy Sector GHG Emissions from Unorganized sectors (2016-2018)
The unorganized sectors comprise of sectors like other energy industries, non-specified industry, off-road transportation, off-road vehicles and other machinery, mobile (aviation component), mobile (water borne component), mobile (others). The project estimates energy sector GHG emissions from unorganized sectors.
• Design of General QA/QC systems for BUR-2 (2017-current)
Design of general Quality Assurance and Quality Control systems for India's Second Biennial Update Report (BUR2) and TNC (General for all sectors and specific for Energy sector).
• Coordination of Energy Sector Inventory (2011-2018)
The Project envisages undertaking activities pertaining to the preparation of India's second and third biennial report and third national communication report to the UNFCCC. The project undertakes Coordination of Energy Sector (Energy industries, Manufacturing industries and Construction) Biomass combustion Inventory for 2011 to 2016 (for BUR 2 and BUR 3).
• Greenhouse Gas Inventory/MRV Work, Government of Guyana (2017-2019)
The preparation of the Third National Communications (TNC) aims to enable Guyana to fulfil its reporting requirements to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) while strengthening the information base as well as the technical and institutional capacity of Guyana. Additionally, the project seeks to assist further integration of climate change priorities into national development strategies and relevant sectoral programmes by building on previous achievements and addressing gaps. A national greenhouse gas inventory is a key element of any national communication. This project entails preparation of GHG inventory and capacity building for future work.
• Integrated action on health and climate change Programme (INCP) (2015-2018)
Enhancing higher education and research partnership links between India and Norway in research areas of the call-clean energy, climate change, and public Health, Improving the understanding of synergistic issues related to energy access, climate change and health and explore the integration of policy structures and implications of such policies in India.
• Modelling and informing low-emission strategies (MILES project) (2014-2017)
EU funded collaborative project on climate change mitigation with 14 top-ranking global educational and research institutes with an objective to serve as a flexible platform to develop the modelling tools to elaborate and discuss complementarily to the Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) at 2030 horizon that can be relevant in national and international political debates. The development of new modelling frameworks were centered on innovations able to address specific questions arising within the national policy context, and in the context of international policy taking longer-term perspective and aiming at contributing to the vision of low-carbon transition at a 2050 horizon.
• Electric Vehicles: Indian Market Study (2017-2018)
This is a collaborative project with Renault to understand vehicle and driving patterns using the primary researching on selected 10 Cities. Secondary research was conducted to select the potential cities. By framing suitable questionnaire, user survey was conducted in these cities to prepare summary report containing key insights.
• Economic cost of impacts and adaptation to extreme rainfall event induced flooding for selected Indian cities (2016- 2018)
Part of the Climate Change Impacts, Vulnerability and Adaptation for Third National Communication component and Assessment of Economic Cost of Impacts and Adaptation focus area conducted for Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Government of India. The project aimed at assessing the impacts on urban flooding through selected case city due to heavy downpours, and extreme precipitation events; damages due to continued climate change and estimation of the relative cost of adaptation for various options in the short- to medium-long term future timescales under various climate change scenarios.
• Risk and uncertainty assessment for port Infrastructure due to impacts of Climate change: Case studies on Kandla and Vishakhapatnam ports (2016- 2018)
Part of the Climate Change Impacts, Vulnerability and Adaptation for Third National Communication component and Climate Change Impacts, Vulnerability and Adaptation: Energy, Infrastructure, Settlements and Urban development focus area undertaken on-behalf of Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Government of India. The project aimed to assess the impacts of sea level rise, heavy downpours and cyclonic events on Indian ports on East and West coasts through case examples of Kandla and Vishakhapatnam ports and continued climate change impacts in the short- to long-term future timescales, primarily the 2020s, with some focus on 2050s and 2080s as well as develop Vulnerability Index methodology for the Indian ports.
• White Paper on Global Market based Measures (GMBM) Scheme of ICAO (2016)
This project undertaken for Ministry of Civil Aviation, Government of India included assessment of ICAO's proposal on market-based measures and alternate proposals submitted by other nations including the impacts of such initiatives on the regional, national and international aviation sector in terms of aviation sector market competitiveness, impact on Indian operators and India's National Civil Aviation Policy. It also included feasibility evaluation of future carbon market in India and recommendations on best course of action for India in this global dialogue
• United States India Joint Center for Building Energy Research and Development: Grid responsive buildings (CBERD project) (2012-2017)
Indo-US joint research project (titled CBERD) proposed to create a Sustainable Life-Cycle Assurance Model for buildings systems' integration through design, construction, operation processes duly integrating information technology with physical systems to achieve energy savings; and to develop R&D solutions customized for regional and localized applications meant for diverse building types. It mainly focused on grid-responsive and connected building application to link energy efficiency and daily operations, such as demand response (DR), to achieve electricity reliability and operational efficiency.
• Energy plantations: Integrating land-use, water, energy and sustainable development at local level (2013-2015)
Proposed to create a framework for local level interventions (especially in Indian rural areas) in order to enhance energy security, improve economic security in rural areas as well as provide impetus for sustainable development through energy plantation. District level data has been used and inter-linking of existing schemes and programmes of the government (such as NREGA, Bharat Nirman and CDM) were explored.
• Techno-economic Assessment of CO2 Capture and Storage Potential in India: A Policy Perspective (2013-2015)
DST funded project takes a policy perspective on scope of CCS technology for India, integrating technical and economic approaches. The project objectives included creating an updated national CO2 emission source data for India and transferring it to a GIS framework, mapping major CO2 storage locations in India such as depleted oil wells, deep un-mineable coal mines, basalt formations using secondary literature; developing estimates of latest cost components of CCS supply chain, modelling and economic cost analysis of future energy systems with a specific focus on CCS options in India.
• Study of Energy Balance of Rural India Using Geospatial Inputs (A Study under the ‘Energy and Mass Exchange in Vegetative Systems') (2013-2015)
Funded by ISRO, Government of India through Space Application Centre to estimate the energy balance of Indian villages through a detailed primary research including residential, agriculture, forest, commercial and livestock domains.
• Assessment of climate change mitigation pathways and evaluation of the robustness of mitigation cost estimates (AMPERE) project (2011-2014)
EU funded research project (FP7) collaborative effort on modeling and policy analysis to develop long-term, economically feasible strategies to lessen the global impact of climate change.
• Low climate impact scenarios and the implications of required tight emission control strategies (LIMITS) project (2012-2014)
EU funded project (FP7) collaborative project with ten international institutions to examine how to fundamentally restructure energy systems and land-use management practices on a global scale in order to limit warming from climate change to 2˚C.
• Supporting state action plans for climate change (2010-12)
The project funded by GIZ (German agency) and involved researchers from IIT-D (New Delhi), IISc (Bangalore) and IMI (Kolkata) to provide technical assistance to develop their state action plans on climate change for Uttar Pradesh, Haryana and Arunachal Pradesh.
• Agriculture pumpset replacement modeling for policy (2010-11)
USAID sponsored project to estimate financial and economic implications of converting annual revenue subsidy to capital subsidy by replacing existing inefficient irrigation pumpsets with energy efficient ones resulting in electricity savings for a state.
• Scoping study for financial solutions for climate change adaptation in rural areas (2010-11)
GIZ (German agency) funded the project to review the financial mechanisms on climate change adaptation for rural India. Almost 400 polices/programmes/projects over the last two decades were studied based on their focus area, type of financial instrument deployed, location specificity and linkages with climate change adaptation.
• Assessment of impacts of climate change on water-energy nexus in agriculture under canal irrigation system (2009-2012)
World Bank and Government of India funded the project to analyze the impacts of climate change on water availability in river systems feeding into two major canal systems of India – one which is having a high contribution from glacial melt (Sarda Sahayak Pariyojna) and another from rain water (Sardar Sarovar canal). The uncertainty of water supply in river basins and thus its availability for connected canal irrigation systems in medium to log-terms could pose a serious risk to vast Indian populations in future. This was one of the first integrated study to link water-energy-agriculture and climate change through modeling.
• DSM studies for Gujarat (2008-2010)
End-use electricity efficiency improvements offer an inexpensive way to reduce power shortages. In Gujarat, which is a relatively well-off industrialized state, the economic potential for cost-effective end-use energy efficiency improvements could be large enough to eliminate the state's electricity shortages. This study, funded by USAID through IRG, focuses on estimating demand side management (DSM) potential in power sector in Gujarat, with special emphasis on agricultural pump-sets, air-conditioners and refrigerators. A detailed load research for residential and commercial consumers was also conducted.
• Impacts of and adaptation to climate change (2005-2007)
Korea Environment Institute (KEI) funded project involved case studies on impacts and adaptation to climate change in Bangladesh, Brazil, China, India, and South Africa. The case studies address adaptation policies to provide general insights about synergies and tradeoffs between national sustainable development policies and climate change, and the implementation measures required to obtain attractive policy options including adaptation.
• CO2 capture and storage in the Indian subcontinent (2006-2007)
EU and UK funded project to estimate CO2 capture and storage (CCS) potential and cost for the Indian subcontinent – specifically India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. Coordinated and developed cost flow sheets for the necessary CCS infrastructure and assess the availability of key cost data, as a basis for reliable costs estimates.
• CASES Project (2006-2008)
EU funded project to coordinate the component for developing countries (China, India, Brazil, Bulgaria, and Turkey). It involved estimation of social and private costs of energy externalities for coal and biofuels through fuel life cycle cost assessment.
• Building and strengthening institutional capacity on climate change (BASIC) (2004-2006)
EU-funded project to build the vulnerability and adaptation component for India. It involves study and critique of globally available assessment tools for climate change related impacts, vulnerability and adaptation policy responses across sectors such as water resources, agriculture, land-use change, energy and infrastructure, human health.
• Development, energy and climate (2000-2007)
International collaborative research project funded by UNEP and DANIDA coordinated by UNEP Risoe Centre/ RIVM focused on national development strategies and policies that both meet development priorities of the countries and address climate change.
• Future energy projections for large developing economies (2005-2007)
Collaborative research project with IEA/UNEP balancing development, energy and climate priorities in large developing economies (China, India, Brazil and South Africa) to provide inputs to IEA's flagship publication World Energy Outlook (for 2006). Technical lead and related research coordination including publication of four individual country reports which involved detailed modeling for a reference and an alternative future scenario including impacts of national policies on energy systems, related emissions and investments.
• Indian Energy and Emissions: Modelling using AIM/Local and AIM/ENDUSE
Joint research project with National Institute of Environment Studies (NIES), Japan; wherein detailed bottom-up models were set up for India for analyzing implications of alternative energy policies at both local and global.
• Research on Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) for CO2 mitigation
Joint-research project with Centre for International Research in Environment and Development (CIRED), France; wherein GHG mitigation potential was estimated for India using the MARKAL model. Sectoral potentials were estimated separately along with their marginal mitigation cost curves. Another research component involved estimation of CO2 emission baseline for the Indian sugar industry.
• Long-term Energy Scenarios for India
Collaborative research project between Max Planck Institute of Plasma Research and Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN) analyzed 100-year energy scenarios for India using ANSWER MARKAL model.
• Non-CO2 GHG Emission Projection
Collaborative research project between IIMA and National Institute of Environment Studies (NIES), Japan involved non-CO2 greenhouse gas emission mitigation potential and technology assessment from a developing country perspective. Mitigation cost curves were estimated for methane and N2O and compared with those for CO2 to analyze mitigation flexibility.
• Greenhouse Gas Pollution Prevention- Climate Change Supplement
Programme by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) implemented by the Louis Berger Group, Inc. Estimated GHG Mitigation for the Indian Power Sector including levelized cost assessment for alternative power generation technologies.
• Strategies and Instruments for Sustainable Growth: Energy Management and Environmental Protection in India
Joint research project by IIMA and the University of Twente, the Netherlands funded by Indo-Dutch Programme for Alternatives in Development (IDPAD). This project analysed the Indian brick and dye-stuff industries for the penetration of environmentally friendly energy efficient technologies using primary research.
• Climate Change Outreach and Awareness Project
Project by Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad, Hagler Bailley, CRISIL, Confederation of Indian Industries (CII) and Development Alternatives (DA) funded by USAID.
• Developing Countries and Global Climate Change: Electric Power Choices for India
Joint project by Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad and Battelle Advanced International Studies Unit, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, USA funded by Pew Centre on Global Climate Change